I. overall situation of supply chain management of German Enterprises
(I) enterprises begin to realize the importance
In the German academic field, supply chain management generally refers to the process optimization of products from planning, supplier selection, procurement, production, transportation and distribution to buy back for the needs of final customers. Logistics is a link of supply chain management. Supply chain management involves most of the value chain of goods. It goes beyond the industry and requires close cooperation among all participants. The advantages of implementing supply chain management lie in reducing purchase cost, shortening delivery time, reducing product inventory, improving supplier loyalty and service level.
The logistics management of German enterprises has gone through the following stages:
In the 1970s (traditional logistics, the goal is to optimize the functions of each link): Procurement - transportation, transfer, storage - production - transportation, transfer, storage - sales;
In the 1980s (horizontal cross logistics, the goal is to optimize orders): Procurement - traditional logistics - production - traditional logistics - Marketing - customers;
In the 1990s (value chain integrated logistics, the goal is to optimize the value chain): customer orders - R & D (subcontracting to suppliers) - Procurement (subcontracting to suppliers) - production (subcontracting to suppliers) - distribution (subcontracting to suppliers) - recycling (subcontracting to suppliers) - customers;
In the 21st century (global value chain integrates logistics with the goal of establishing and optimizing global networks).
According to the survey, 81% of German enterprises believe that the implementation of supply chain management will improve their competitiveness. However, only more than 20% of the enterprises have established effective supply chain management, because 95% of the enterprises in Germany are small and medium-sized enterprises. Large enterprises and large-scale medium-sized enterprises attach great importance to supply chain management, while small enterprises, limited by their own scale and strength, have not basically established supply chain management. According to statistics, 37-39% of large enterprises in Germany do not have strategic supply chain.
The total cost of supply chain management in Germany generally accounts for 7% of the turnover of enterprises. The profit margin of the enterprises implementing supply chain management is twice that of the enterprises not implementing supply chain management. The average profit margin of standard product manufacturers who implement supply chain management is 11%, and that of personalized product manufacturers is 9%.
Generally speaking, compared with the United States and other countries with strong service industry, German enterprises, mainly small and medium-sized enterprises, still have a process of accepting the new thing of supply chain management in practice.
(II) main practices of supply chain management enterprises
1. SCOR mode
Most of the supply chain management enterprises in Germany are large-scale enterprises. They all have their own complete supply chain and manage and integrate themselves. SCOR model is generally used in supply chain. SCOR model is recommended by American Supply Management Association, which can optimize the current supply chain of enterprises. It goes beyond the boundaries of enterprises and departments, pays attention to the upstream and downstream partnership of supply chain, pays attention to the strategic connection and efficient operation of affiliated enterprises.
2. Contract logistics mode
Kontraktlogistik in Germany, which is called 3PL by the United States and the United States, is similar to the "Li Feng model" in Hong Kong from the perspective of contract executors. In short, contract logistics is a mode that manufacturers or retailers sign long-term contracts with logistics enterprises to outsource the whole logistics link.
Contract logistics mode is more popular in Germany, especially in the supply chain management of export-oriented enterprises. According to incomplete statistics of Kompass enterprise exchange website, there are more than 700 contract logistics enterprises in Germany, including not only large companies such as German post DHL, German Railway Schenker, K ü HNE & Nagel, Dachser and FIEGE, but also small and medium-sized enterprises such as grieshaber and karldischinger. These enterprises usually sign 3-5-year contracts with customers. From the beginning of the product planning stage, they enter into the product value chain of customers, and create greater value for customers through their own professional services. German contract logistics companies are mainly active in the automotive, textile, food and frozen products and pharmaceutical industries. In 2008, the market size of supply chain management in German enterprises was 81 billion euros, of which nearly 30% adopted the contract logistics mode.
It is worth noting that the trend of supply chain management outsourcing in German enterprises has slowed down significantly. At its peak in 2005, many companies outsourced the entire supply chain. However, according to the Research Report of the German Federation of industry, the overall outsourcing of supply chain management did not grow in 2010, and some large enterprises recovered the part of supply chain management.
(3) the state has no supporting measures
Germany is a typical market economy country, except for special circumstances (such as economic crisis), the government intervention in economic life is less. Specific to the supply chain management industry, the German government has no direct specific support measures.
II. Suggestions for the development of supply chain management foreign trade enterprises
As the world's largest manufacturing country, we cannot always rely on demographic dividend to reduce labor costs. In addition, the foreign trade environment that our country is facing is not optimistic day by day. The number of "double anti" cases against China is increasing, and it is spreading from developed countries to developing countries. Our manufacturing enterprises should improve their industrial structure and strive to occupy the two high-end parts of the global value chain, namely R & D and sales. We should strive to develop and promote supply chain management and supply chain management enterprises. The competition in the 21st century may not be the competition between enterprises, but the competition between supply chains. The current trend is that with the deepening of globalization, enterprises are speeding up the pace of strategic alliance. We can consider:
(I) large enterprises should strive to optimize their own supply chain
Chinese enterprises are going global. With the rapid development of China's economy。